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[英语语法]

作者:佚名  发布于:2016-11-08 10:50:16  浏览: 16033602次   分享至:
 

主谓一致

一. 教学内容:

1)   语法形式上要一致,即主语单复数形式与谓语要一致。

2 意义上要一致,即主语意义上的单复数要与谓语的单复数形式一致。
3
就近原则,即谓语动词的单复形式取决于最靠近它的词语,
 
一般来说,不可数名词用动词单数,可数名词复数用动词复数。
 There is much water in the thermos.

但当不可数名词前有表示数量的复数名词时,谓语动词用复数形式。
Ten thousand tons of coal were produced last year.
. 重点、难点
主谓一致问题是中国学生最容易忽视的语法现象,因为在汉语中不涉及主谓一致问题,所以要想掌握这个问题,一定要看清句子结构,找准主语,判断谓语动词的单复数。
具体内容:
1.
语法结构上的一致。
 找准主语,谓语动词的单复数由主语的单复数决定。
1)一些不确切的表示比例的修饰词修饰主语时,谓语动词的单复数由主语决定。
如:all, most, half, some, many, rest, 40%, 2/3, one third, none作主语时单复数要看句子结构要求。
例句:
Half of the water is fresh water.
All of my friends like sports.
Two thirds of the wood was made in Japan.
70% of the students agree.
None of the people here is a farmer.
2)表示确切数量的词修饰主语时,主语中心语决定谓语动词,注意neithereither作主语时,谓语动词看作单数。
例句:
One of the students comes from England.
Neither of the girls likes football.
3)主语由more than one …或many a …修饰,虽然表示复数意义,但主语中心语是名词单数,所以谓语动词用单数形式。如果是more than one修饰主语,主语中心语一定是复数,谓语动词则用复数。
例句:
More than a house has been damaged in the hurricane.
More members than one are for you plan.
4)一些主语后会出现介词短语as well as, as much as, no less than, along with, with, like, rather than, but, except, besides, including, in addition to等,表示复数意义,但谓语动词单复数只由主语中心语决定。
例句:
The teacher with her students was excited after the match.
Nobody but Sam and Mike was in the classroom.
注:如果名词由 every, each, no来修饰,即便结构上表示并列,谓语动词用单数形式。
Every girl and every boy likes football.
Each member and each waiter of the club is satisfied with the behavior of the boss.
5)有的词组既可修饰可数名词也可修饰不可数名词,如a lot of, lots of, plenty of,谓语动词单复数由名词决定,但是amounts of, quantities of无论修饰可数名词还是不可数名词,谓语动词都用复数形式。
例句:
Plenty of water on the earth is sea water.
Amounts of water are used to water flowers.
2. 语言意义上的一致
有的单词单数形式表示复数意义,有的单词复数形式表示单数意义,还有的单词单复数同型,那就要看在句子中所表达的意义了。
1)集体名词:crowd, people, police, cattle, militia等,单数形式,表示复数意义;

集合名词team, group,army,class,club,committee,crowd,crew,family,gang,herd,jury,public,congress,assembly,band等作主语时,如指整体,谓语动词用单数;如指成员,谓语动词用复数。
例句:
The police were running after the robber.       
警方正在追赶那个盗贼。
The whole family are watching TV.               
全家人在看电视。
The red team won the game.                       
红队赢得了比赛。
2)形式上为复数,但意义上为单数的名词如news, works作主语时,其谓语动词通常用单数形式。这类名词有以-s结尾的表示学科、专业、疾病等术语的名词及其他名词。如:economicslinguisticspoliticsmathematicsphysicsmeasles(麻疹)newsworksbrains(智慧)等等。例如:

  Physics is a difficult subject.

Brains is very important to a person.
例句:The works was translated in 1859.这本著作是1859年翻译的。
3)一些单复数同型的名词means, species, Chinese, Japanese,要分析句子中的具体意义,选择谓语动词的单复数形式。
例句:
Chinese is a hard-working race.                 
中华民族是个勤劳的民族。
Chinese are hard-working people.                
中国人民是勤劳的人民。
4)不定式、动名词或从句做主语时,要看所并列的不定式、动名词或从句所指代的情况是一个整体还是不同情形来选择谓语动词的单复数。
例句:
Going to bed early and getting up early is good for your health.
Where to find him and how to find him is not known to us.
(5) "one or two
+名词复数","one or more+名词复数"作主语,谓语动词用复数。"one/a+单数名词or two"作主语,谓语动词可用单数也可用复数。例如:o be strict with oneself and to be kind to others are good qualities of a person.
3. 就近原则
1or, eitheror, neithernor, not onlybut also…连接的主语,谓语动词的单复数取决于离谓语较近的主语。
例句:
Not only Tom but also Mary and Helen are from America.
The students or their teacher likes the new classroom.
2there be 句型中,遵循就近原则。
例句:There is a book and two pens on the desk.
There are two pens and a book on the desk.

【典型例题】
[1] Tony, along with his mother and aunt, _____ going to the concert.
A. are
  B. is  C. is able to  D. dare not
答案:B
解析:along with his mother and aunt这个介词短语在含义上表示伴随状态,但是在结构上,只有Tony 是主语,故谓语动词是单数形式。
[
2] Half of the furniture _____ made.
A. are
  B. has been  C. have  D. has
答案:B
解析:当half of 修饰主语时,谓语动词单复数看名词furniture, 故选单数形式。
[
3] Are there any students who can answer this question? _______.
A. Neither
  B. None  C. No one  D. No body
答案:C
解析:noneno one都可以指人,但这里是一个there be 句型的一般疑问句形式,完整的答话应 No, there is no student who can answer this question. 所以当我们回答时使用No one;如果我们问 How many of the students can answer this question? 应回答 None, none表示数量为零。
[
4] This furniture is different from ______.
A. that
  B. that one  C. these  D. these ones
答案:A
解析:注意furniture是不可数名词,所以不能用one these 来指代,故选A
[
5] The number of errors ______.
A. are surprising
   B. were surprising
C. is surprised
    D. was surprising
答案:D
解析:主语中心语是number,而不是errors 所以谓语动词用单数。
[
6] Either of the two sides of the street ______ trees.
A. have been planted
    B. must plant
C. is planted
       D. will be permitted to plant
答案:C
解析:Either 做句子主语中心语,谓语动词用单数形式。
【练习题】(答题时间:15分钟)
1. Nobody but Sam and Mike _____ in the lab.
 A. had been
     B. is      C. were   D. are
2. Many a man ______ to take physical examinations.
 A. was used
    B. was required  C. want D. who is going to
3. Jack
s imagination, as well as his sense of humor, ______ delighted.
 A. were both
     B. had     C. have    D. was
4. Burt, not Anne and Laura, _____ the bicycle pump.
 A. have found
 B. have been found  C. has been found D. has found
5. To collect stamps ______ much money.
 A. spend
     B. costs     C. take    D. can have
6. There ______ a dictionary and several books on the desk.
 A. are
        B. must   C. have been     D. is

7. All that glitters ______ not gold.
 A. have
       B. has   C. is     D. are
8. The population of our country ______ by 50 percent over the last twenty years.
 A. has increased
           B. were risen
 C. have been increased
        D. have rose
9. Each one of the statues ______ different.
 A. are not
      B. is  C. make        D. can be not
10. A considerable number of particles ______ electric charges.
 A. carries
    B. carry   C. carried  D. has carried
11. Terry is only one of the secretaries who ______ classes.
 A. still attend
                B. still attends   

C. attend still                D. have still attended
12. The singer and dancer ______ our evening party.
 A. is to attend
 B. are to attend C. were to attend D. is attend
13. The athlete, together with coach and several relatives, ______ to the Olympic Games.
 A. travel
   B. are traveling  C. be traveling D. is traveling
14. All who speak well of you ______ not your friends.
 A. are
    B. is      C. have been     D. has been
15. More students than one ______ watching the Olympics in the classroom.
 A. are
     B. is     C. have    D. has  

【练习题答案】
1. B
  2. B  3. D   4. D  5. B  6. D  7. C
8. A
  9. B  10. B  11. B  12. A  13. D  14. A 15. A

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